# Conformally invariant operators

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- | On a general compact manifold $M$ with metric $g$, a metrically defined operator $A$ is said to be conformally invariant if under the conformal change in the metric $g_w=e^{2w}g$, the pair of the corresponding operators $A_w$ and $A$ are related by | + | On a general compact Riemannian manifold $M$ with metric $g$, a metrically defined operator $A$ is said to be conformally invariant if under the conformal change in the metric $g_w=e^{2w}g$, the pair of the corresponding operators $A_w$ and $A$ are related by |

\[ | \[ | ||

A_w(\varphi)=e^{-bw} A(e^{aw}\varphi)\quad\mbox{for all }\varphi \in C^{\infty}(M), | A_w(\varphi)=e^{-bw} A(e^{aw}\varphi)\quad\mbox{for all }\varphi \in C^{\infty}(M), | ||

\] | \] | ||

where $a, b$ are constant. | where $a, b$ are constant. | ||

+ | |||

+ | Examples of conformally invariant operators include: | ||

+ | |||

+ | * The conformal Laplacian: | ||

+ | \[ | ||

+ | L_g=-\Delta_g + \frac{n-2}{4(n-1)}R_g, | ||

+ | \] | ||

+ | where $n$ is the dimension of the manifold, $-\Delta_g$ is the Laplace–Beltrami operator of $g$, and $R_g$ is the scalar curvature of $g$. This is a second order differential operator. One can check that in this case, $a=\frac{n-2}{2}$ and $b=\frac{n+2}{2}$. | ||

+ | |||

+ | * The Paneitz operator <ref name="paneitz1983quartic"/> <ref name="paneitz2008quartic"/>: | ||

+ | \[ | ||

+ | P=(-\Delta_g)^2-\mbox{div}_g (a_n R_g g+b_n Ric_g)d+\frac{n-4}{2}Q, | ||

+ | \] | ||

+ | where $\mbox{div}_g$ is the divergence operator, $d$ is the differential operator, $Ric_g$ is the Ricci tensor, | ||

+ | \[ | ||

+ | Q=c_n|Ric_g|^2+d_nR_g^2-\frac{1}{2(n-2)}\Delta_gR | ||

+ | \] | ||

+ | and | ||

+ | \[ | ||

+ | a_n=\frac{(n-2)^2+4}{2(n-1)(n-2)}, b_n=-\frac{4}{n-2}, c_n=-\frac{2}{(n-2)^2}, d_n=\frac{n^3-4n^2+16n-16}{8(n-1)^2(n-2)^2}. | ||

+ | \] | ||

+ | This is a fourth order operator with leading term $(-\Delta_g)^2$. | ||

+ | |||

+ | * GJMS operators <ref name="GJMS"/>: this is a family of conformally invariant differential operators with leading term $(-\Delta_g)^k$ for all integers $k$ if $n$ is odd, and for $k\in \{1,2,\cdots,\frac{n}{2}\}$ if $n$ is even. A nonexistence result can be found in <ref name="gover2004conformally"/> for $k>\frac n2$ and $n\ge 4$ even. An explicit formula and a recursive formula each for GJMS operators and Q-curvatures have been found by Juhl <ref name="Juhl1"/><ref name="Juhl2"/> (see also Fefferman-Graham<ref name="FG13"/> ). The formula are more explicit when they are on the standard spheres. | ||

+ | |||

+ | *Scattering operators <ref name="graham2003scattering"/>, or the conformally invariant fractional powers of the Laplacian <ref name="chang2011fractional"/>: This is a family of conformally invariant pseudo-differential operators $P_\sigma$ defined on the conformal infinity of asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds with leading term $(-\Delta_g)^\sigma$ for all real numbers $\sigma\in (0,\frac n2)$ except at most finite values. Chang and González <ref name="chang2011fractional"/> reconciled the way of defining $P_\sigma$ in Graham-Zworski <ref name="graham2003scattering"/> and the localization method of Caffarelli-Silvestre <ref name="CSextension"/> for the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^\sigma$ in the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | Special cases: | ||

+ | |||

+ | * On the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$: the operators mentioned above are just the fractional Laplacians. | ||

+ | |||

+ | * On the standard sphere $(\mathbb{S}^n, g_{\mathbb{S}^n})$ (which is the conformal infinity of the standar Poincare disk): they are the following intertwining operator <ref name="branson1987group"/> of explicit formula: | ||

+ | \[ | ||

+ | P_\sigma=\frac{\Gamma(B+\frac{1}{2}+\sigma)}{\Gamma(B+\frac{1}{2}-\sigma)},\quad B=\sqrt{-\Delta_{g_{\mathbb{S}^n}}+\left(\frac{n-1}{2}\right)^2}, | ||

+ | \] | ||

+ | where $\Gamma$ is the Gamma function and $\Delta_{g_{\mathbb{S}^n}}$ is the Laplace-Beltrami operator on $(\mathbb{S}^n, g_{\mathbb{S}^n})$. Moreover, the operator $P_{\sigma}$ | ||

+ | * is the pull back of $(-\Delta)^{\sigma}$ under stereographic projections, | ||

+ | |||

+ | * has the eigenfunctions of spherical harmonics, and | ||

+ | |||

+ | * is the inverse of a spherical Riesz potential. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | == References == | ||

+ | {{reflist|refs= | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="branson1987group">{{Citation | last1=Branson | first1= Thomas P | title=Group representations arising from Lorentz conformal geometry | journal=Journal of functional analysis | year=1987 | volume=74 | pages=199--291}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="CSextension">{{Citation | last1=Caffarelli | first1= Luis | last2=Silvestre | first2= Luis | title=An extension problem related to the fractional Laplacian | journal=Communications in Partial Differential Equations | year=2007 | volume=32 | pages=1245--1260}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="chang2011fractional">{{Citation | last1=Chang | first1= Sun-Yung Alice | last2=González | first2= Maria del Mar | title=Fractional Laplacian in conformal geometry | journal=Advances in Mathematics | year=2011 | volume=226 | pages=1410--1432}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="FG13">{{Citation | last1=Fefferman | first1= Charles | last2=Graham | first2= C | title=Juhl’s formulae for GJMS operators and 𝑄-curvatures | journal=Journal of the American Mathematical Society|year=2013 | volume=26 | pages=1191--1207}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="gover2004conformally">{{Citation | last1=Gover | first1= A | last2=Hirachi | first2= Kengo | title=Conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian—a complete nonexistence theorem | journal=Journal of the American Mathematical Society |year=2004 |volume=17 | pages=389--405}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="GJMS">{{Citation | last1=Graham | first1= C Robin | last2=Jenne | first2= Ralph | last3=Mason | first3= Lionel J | last4=Sparling | first4= George AJ | title=Conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian, I: Existence | journal=Journal of the London Mathematical Society | year=1992 | volume=2 | pages=557--565}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="graham2003scattering">{{Citation | last1=Graham | first1= C Robin | last2=Zworski | first2= Maciej | title=Scattering matrix in conformal geometry | journal=Inventiones mathematicae | year=2003 | volume=152 | pages=89--118}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="Juhl1">{{Citation | last1=Juhl | first1= Andreas | title=On the recursive structure of Branson’s Q-curvature | journal=arXiv preprint arXiv:1004.1784}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="Juhl2">{{Citation | last1=Juhl | first1= Andreas | title=Explicit formulas for GJMS-operators and Q-curvatures | journal=Geometric and Functional Analysis | year=2013|volume=23 | pages=1278--1370}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="paneitz1983quartic">{{Citation | last1=Paneitz | first1= S | title=A quartic conformally covariant differential operator for arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifolds |year=1983 | journal=preprint}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <ref name="paneitz2008quartic">{{Citation | last1=Paneitz | first1= S | title=A quartic conformally covariant differential operator for arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifolds (summary) | url=http://dx.doi.org/10.3842/SIGMA.2008.036 | doi:10.3842/SIGMA.2008.036 | year=2008 | journal=SIGMA Symmetry Integrability Geom. Methods Appl. | issue=4 | Paper=036}}</ref> | ||

+ | |||

+ | }} |

## Latest revision as of 05:04, 24 September 2013

On a general compact Riemannian manifold $M$ with metric $g$, a metrically defined operator $A$ is said to be conformally invariant if under the conformal change in the metric $g_w=e^{2w}g$, the pair of the corresponding operators $A_w$ and $A$ are related by \[ A_w(\varphi)=e^{-bw} A(e^{aw}\varphi)\quad\mbox{for all }\varphi \in C^{\infty}(M), \] where $a, b$ are constant.

Examples of conformally invariant operators include:

- The conformal Laplacian:

\[ L_g=-\Delta_g + \frac{n-2}{4(n-1)}R_g, \] where $n$ is the dimension of the manifold, $-\Delta_g$ is the Laplace–Beltrami operator of $g$, and $R_g$ is the scalar curvature of $g$. This is a second order differential operator. One can check that in this case, $a=\frac{n-2}{2}$ and $b=\frac{n+2}{2}$.

- The Paneitz operator
^{[1]}^{[2]}:

\[ P=(-\Delta_g)^2-\mbox{div}_g (a_n R_g g+b_n Ric_g)d+\frac{n-4}{2}Q, \] where $\mbox{div}_g$ is the divergence operator, $d$ is the differential operator, $Ric_g$ is the Ricci tensor, \[ Q=c_n|Ric_g|^2+d_nR_g^2-\frac{1}{2(n-2)}\Delta_gR \] and \[ a_n=\frac{(n-2)^2+4}{2(n-1)(n-2)}, b_n=-\frac{4}{n-2}, c_n=-\frac{2}{(n-2)^2}, d_n=\frac{n^3-4n^2+16n-16}{8(n-1)^2(n-2)^2}. \] This is a fourth order operator with leading term $(-\Delta_g)^2$.

- GJMS operators
^{[3]}: this is a family of conformally invariant differential operators with leading term $(-\Delta_g)^k$ for all integers $k$ if $n$ is odd, and for $k\in \{1,2,\cdots,\frac{n}{2}\}$ if $n$ is even. A nonexistence result can be found in^{[4]}for $k>\frac n2$ and $n\ge 4$ even. An explicit formula and a recursive formula each for GJMS operators and Q-curvatures have been found by Juhl^{[5]}^{[6]}(see also Fefferman-Graham^{[7]}). The formula are more explicit when they are on the standard spheres.

- Scattering operators
^{[8]}, or the conformally invariant fractional powers of the Laplacian^{[9]}: This is a family of conformally invariant pseudo-differential operators $P_\sigma$ defined on the conformal infinity of asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds with leading term $(-\Delta_g)^\sigma$ for all real numbers $\sigma\in (0,\frac n2)$ except at most finite values. Chang and González^{[9]}reconciled the way of defining $P_\sigma$ in Graham-Zworski^{[8]}and the localization method of Caffarelli-Silvestre^{[10]}for the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^\sigma$ in the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$.

Special cases:

- On the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$: the operators mentioned above are just the fractional Laplacians.

- On the standard sphere $(\mathbb{S}^n, g_{\mathbb{S}^n})$ (which is the conformal infinity of the standar Poincare disk): they are the following intertwining operator
^{[11]}of explicit formula:

\[ P_\sigma=\frac{\Gamma(B+\frac{1}{2}+\sigma)}{\Gamma(B+\frac{1}{2}-\sigma)},\quad B=\sqrt{-\Delta_{g_{\mathbb{S}^n}}+\left(\frac{n-1}{2}\right)^2}, \] where $\Gamma$ is the Gamma function and $\Delta_{g_{\mathbb{S}^n}}$ is the Laplace-Beltrami operator on $(\mathbb{S}^n, g_{\mathbb{S}^n})$. Moreover, the operator $P_{\sigma}$

- is the pull back of $(-\Delta)^{\sigma}$ under stereographic projections,

- has the eigenfunctions of spherical harmonics, and

- is the inverse of a spherical Riesz potential.

## References

- ↑ Paneitz, S (1983), "A quartic conformally covariant differential operator for arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifolds",
*preprint* - ↑ Paneitz, S (2008), "A quartic conformally covariant differential operator for arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifolds (summary)",
*SIGMA Symmetry Integrability Geom. Methods Appl.*(4), http://dx.doi.org/10.3842/SIGMA.2008.036 - ↑ Graham, C Robin; Jenne, Ralph; Mason, Lionel J; Sparling, George AJ (1992), "Conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian, I: Existence",
*Journal of the London Mathematical Society***2**: 557--565 - ↑ Gover, A; Hirachi, Kengo (2004), "Conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian—a complete nonexistence theorem",
*Journal of the American Mathematical Society***17**: 389--405 - ↑ Juhl, Andreas, "On the recursive structure of Branson’s Q-curvature",
*arXiv preprint arXiv:1004.1784* - ↑ Juhl, Andreas (2013), "Explicit formulas for GJMS-operators and Q-curvatures",
*Geometric and Functional Analysis***23**: 1278--1370 - ↑ Fefferman, Charles; Graham, C (2013), "Juhl’s formulae for GJMS operators and 𝑄-curvatures",
*Journal of the American Mathematical Society***26**: 1191--1207 - ↑
^{8.0}^{8.1}Graham, C Robin; Zworski, Maciej (2003), "Scattering matrix in conformal geometry",*Inventiones mathematicae***152**: 89--118 - ↑
^{9.0}^{9.1}Chang, Sun-Yung Alice; González, Maria del Mar (2011), "Fractional Laplacian in conformal geometry",*Advances in Mathematics***226**: 1410--1432 - ↑ Caffarelli, Luis; Silvestre, Luis (2007), "An extension problem related to the fractional Laplacian",
*Communications in Partial Differential Equations***32**: 1245--1260 - ↑ Branson, Thomas P (1987), "Group representations arising from Lorentz conformal geometry",
*Journal of functional analysis***74**: 199--291