# Dirichlet form

$$\newcommand{\dd}{\mathrm{d}} \newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$$

A Dirichlet form in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is a bilinear function

\begin{equation*} \mathcal{E}: D\times D \to \mathbb{R} \end{equation*}

with the following properties

1) The domain $D$ is a dense subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$

2) $\mathcal{E}$ is symmetric, that is $\mathcal{E}(u,v)=\mathcal{E}(v,u)$ for any $u,v \in D$.

3) $\mathcal{E}(u,u) \geq 0$ for any $u \in D$.

4) The set $D$ equipped with the inner product defined by $(u,v)_{\mathcal{E}} := (u,v)_{L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)} + \mathcal{E}(u,v)$ is a real Hilbert space.

5) For any $u \in D$ we have that $u_* = (u\vee 0) \wedge 1 \in D$ and $\mathcal{E}(u_*,u_*)\leq \mathcal{E}(u,u)$

An example of a Dirichlet form is given by any integral of the form \mathcal{E}(u,v) = $\iint_{\R^n \times \R^n} (u(y)-u(x))(v(y)-v(x))k(x,y)\, \dd x \dd y,$ where $K$ is some non-negative symmetric kernel.

If the kernel $K$ satisfies the bound $K(x,y) \leq \Lambda |x-y|^{-n-s}$, then the quadratic form is bounded in $\dot H^{s/2}$ . If moreover, $\lambda |x-y|^{-n-s} \leq K(x,y)$, then the form is comparable to the norm in $\dot H^{s/2}$ squared and in that case the set $D \subset L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ defined above is given by $H^{s/2}(\mathbb{R}^n)$

Dirichlet forms are natural generalizations of the Dirichlet integrals $\int a_{ij}(x) \partial_i u \partial_j u \dd x,$ where $a_{ij}$ is elliptic.

The Euler-Lagrange equation of a Dirichlet form is a fractional order version of elliptic equations in divergence form. They are studied using variational methods and they are expected to satisfy similar properties [1][2][3].

## References

(There should be a lot more references here)

1. Barlow, Martin T.; Bass, Richard F.; Chen, Zhen-Qing; Kassmann, Moritz (2009), "Non-local Dirichlet forms and symmetric jump processes", Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 361 (4): 1963–1999, doi:10.1090/S0002-9947-08-04544-3, ISSN 0002-9947
2. Kassmann, Moritz (2009), "A priori estimates for integro-differential operators with measurable kernels", Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations 34 (1): 1–21, doi:10.1007/s00526-008-0173-6, ISSN 0944-2669
3. Caffarelli, Luis; Chan, Chi Hin; Vasseur, Alexis (2011), Journal of the American Mathematical Society (24): 849–869, doi:10.1090/S0894-0347-2011-00698-X, ISSN 0894-0347