Problem 1. Graphing
Consider the function .
a) Find the partition points of f and make a sign chart for f.
, so the partition points are 0,
. The function is positive for
. It is negative for
and for .
b) Find the critical points of f and make a sign chart for f'.
, so the critical points are -1, 0 and 1. f' is negative for x<-1, positive for -1 < x < 0, negative for 0<x<1 and positive for x>1.
c) Find the inflection points of f and make a sign chart for f''.
, so the inflection points are at . f'' is positive for and for , and negative for .
d) On the back of this page, sketch the curve y=f(x). Mark all important points CLEARLY.
I can't draw this on screen, but the graph looks like a ``Mexican hat''. There are local minima at (-1,-1) and (1,-1), and a local maximum at (0,0). The graph is positive, decreasing and curving up for , then negative, decreasing and curving up for , hitting a local minimum at (-1, -1). It is then negative, increasing, and curving up for , and is negative, increasing, and curving down for , hitting a local maximum at (0,0). The remainder of the graph is a mirror image of the first half, since f(-x)=f(x).
Problem 2. Max-min
Consider the function .
a) Find all critical points of this function. For each one, say whether it is a local maximum, a local minimum, or neither.
. Setting this equal to zero we have
But , so dividing our equation by gives
so , so . This is the ONLY critical point. Now , and , so . Now , so , so is a local minimum.
b) Find the global maximum and minimum of f(x) in the interval [-5,5].
The candidates are the critical points and the endpoints. is a huge positive number, and is a tiny negative number, so the maximum is at x=5 and the minimum is at .
Problem 3. Marginal analysis
The demand x for widgets is related to the price p by the demand equation x = 3000 - 100 p. The cost function is .
a) Find the marginal cost, the marginal revenue, and the marginal profit at a production level of x=1200.
Solving for price in terms of demand gives p=30 - x/100, so . Since , we have a profit . Taking derivatives we get our marginal quantities:
R'(x) = 30 - x/50, C'(x) = 2-=x/100, P'(x) = 10-x/100.
Finally, plugging in x=1200 gives R'(1200)=6, C'(1200)=8 and P'(1200)=-2. In other words, each additional widget costs us $ 8, and only brings us $ 6 in additional revenue, and so decreases our profit by $ 2.
b) What is the production level that maximizes revenue? What production level maximizes profit?
To maximize revenue, set R'=0. This gives x=1500.
To maximize profit, set P'=0. This gives x=1000.
Problem 4. Exponential growth
An investor invests $1000 at 7% interest, compounded continuously.
a) How much money will he have in 20 years? Express your answer as an exact expression (e.g. something like $ - no, that's not the right answer), and then approximate it numerically (e.g., $16,000).
. Now (the Law of 70, remember?), so and . Thus .
b) When will there be $10,000 in his account? Express your answer as an exact expression. You do NOT need to approximate it numerically.
, so , so , so . (This is a little under 33 years).
Problem 5. Rates of change
A quantity y is changing at a rate
When x=0, y=5. What does y equal when x=2?
Plugging in y(0)=5 we have , so C=3. Thus:
Problem 6. Volume
A silo-shaped region is obtained by taking the region between the curve and the x-axis and rotating it about the y-axis. [See figure]. We compute the volume of this region by slicing it into a stack of disks.
Note: This is a straightforward application of the ``slice and dice principle'', but doesn't directly correspond to any formulas in the book. I'm quite disappointed that only 4 or 5 people in the entire class attempted this problem.
a) Find the (approximate) radius and (approximate) volume of a disk at height y and thickness .
The radius of the disk is just the value of x on the curve. Since , we have , so our radius is . The area is , and the volume is (area thickness) = .
b) By summing the answer to (a) and taking a limit, express the volume of the silo as a definite integral.
The sum of volumes is of the form , where , and y ranges from 0 to 4. Taking the limit as the number of slices goes to infinity gives the definite integral .
c) Evaluate this integral to get the total volume.
The integral evaluates to .
Evaluate the following. The limits and integrals should be simplified as much as possible, but you don't have to simplify the derivatives:
b) . Set .
e) f'(x), where . Apply the chain rule twice to get
f) . This comes from the substitution .
g) dy/dx, where is
h) . (Either apply L'Hopital 3 times, or divide top and bottom by and take a limit).
i) Note that and that .
. This sum is of the form
. Taking the limit gives
, which works out to