[Maxima] Lattice reduction code and number recognition question

Reinhard Oldenburg oldenbur at math.uni-frankfurt.de
Sun Jan 4 11:49:28 CST 2009

Dear Maxima list,

I've written a little bit of lisp code with Maxima interface that does 
the following:
The Lisp function lll and its maxima counterpart latticereduce calculate 
a reduced basis of an lattice by a straightforward (i.e. robust but 
slow) implemementation of the Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz algorithm. In 
maxima the usage is e.g. latticereduce([[2,16],[1,9]]); The name of the 
top level function is inspired by Mathematica where LatticeReduce does 
exactly the same thing (faster). I hope that Wolfram does not have the 
right to use this name execlusively.
I tested the code with Lispworks and with gcl from Maxima's binary 
distribution. Is there interest to include it in the share library?

My motivation to implement the lll algorithm came from the possibilty to 
detect releations between integers. This does the following maxima function:
integerrelations([23,3,5]);   produces [1,-1,-4] which says that 
23*1+3*(-1)+5*(-4) is zero (or small in the sense of a short vector in 
the lattice).
floatrelations does the same for floats.

Finally,  things shoud fit together to produce something like Maple 
identify function, i.e. a function that produces a (hopefully) good 
guess what a floating point numer may be. An example where this works is:
(%i11) recognize(6.2426406871190006);
(%o11)                           3 sqrt(2) + 2
The underlying lisp function convert2AlgNum tries to find the 
coefficient of  a candidate  minimal  polynomial. However, results are 
very poor. Does anybody understand why this is the case?

Here is the code (20 yeras ago I used Scheme a lot, but I'm new to 
Common lisp, so I expect there is mucg room for improvement).

; file lll.lisp
; Maxima Interface

(defun maxima::$latticereduce (L) ; L is maxima list of maxima lists
  (if (or
       (not (listp L))
       (< (length L) 2)
       (not (equal (apply 'max (mapcar 'length (cdr L)))
                   (apply 'min (mapcar 'length (cdr L))) ))  )
      (maxima::merror "Latticereduce needs a list lists as input")) 
  (let* ((vs (mapcar 'cdr (cdr L)))
         (n (length vs))
         (v (make-array (list n))))
    (loop for i from 0 to (- n 1) do
          (setf (aref v i) (make-array (list n) :initial-contents (nth i 
    (setf v (lll v))
    (cons '(maxima::mlist)
          (mapcar #'(lambda (u) (cons '(maxima::mlist) (coerce u 'list)))
                  (coerce v 'list)))

(defun maxima::$integerrelations (L)
  (let ((res (integerrelations (cdr L))))
    (cons '(maxima::mlist) (car res))

(defun maxima::$floatrelations (L)
  (let ((res (floatrelations (cdr L))))
    (cons '(maxima::mlist) (car res))

(defun maxima::$recognize (x)
  (convert2AlgNum x)) 

; linear algebra helpers

(defun norm2 (a)
  (declare (type (vector number *) a))
  (loop for i from 0 to (- (length a) 1)  sum
        (* (aref a i) (aref a i) )))

(defun vadd (a b)
  (declare (type (vector number *) a))
  (declare (type (vector number *) b))
  (if (not (= (length a) (length b)))
      (error "vadd: length must coincide")
    (let ((res (make-array (list (length a)) ))
        (n (length a)))
      (loop for i from 0 to (- n 1) do
            (setf (aref res i) (+ (aref a i) (aref b i))))

(defun vsub (a b)
  (declare (type (vector number *) a))
  (declare (type (vector number *) b))
  (if (not (= (length a) (length b)))
      (error "vadd: length must coincide")
    (let ((res (make-array (list (length a)) ))
        (n (length a)))
      (loop for i from 0 to (- n 1) do
            (setf (aref res i) (- (aref a i) (aref b i))))

(defun smul (s a)
  (declare (type (vector number *) a))
  (declare (type (vector number *) b))
  (let ((res (make-array (list (length a)) ))
        (n (length a)))
      (loop for i from 0 to (- n 1) do
            (setf (aref res i) (* s (aref a i))))

(defun dot (a b)
  (declare (type (vector number *) a))
  (declare (type (vector number *) b))
  (if (not (= (length a) (length b)))
      (error "vadd: length must coincide")
    (loop for i from 0 to (- (length a) 1) sum
          (* (aref a i) (aref b i)))))

(defvar *gsbasis* nil)

(defun gso (f mu) ; returns Gram-Schmidt OGS, updates mu
  (declare (type vector a))
  (declare (type (array number (* *) mu)))
  (let* ((n (length f))
         (g (make-array (list n) )))
    (loop for j from 0 to (- n 1) do (setf (aref g j) (aref f j)))
    (loop for j from 0 to (- n 1) do
          (loop for k from 0 to (- j 1) do
                (if (> (norm2 (aref g k)) 0)
                      (setf (aref mu j k)
                            (/ (dot (aref f j) (aref g k))
                               (dot (aref g k) (aref g k))))
                      (setf (aref g j) (vsub (aref g j) (smul (aref mu j 
k) (aref g k))))

(defun lll (f) ; f is vetor of n vectors
  (declare (type (vector vector *) f))
  (let* ((n (length f))
        (g (make-array (list n) ))
        (gg nil)
        (i 1)
        (temp nil)
        (mu (make-array (list n n) :initial-element 0)))
    (loop for j from 0 to (- n 1) do
          (setf (aref g j) (aref f j))
          (setf (aref mu j j) 1))
    (setf gg (gso g mu))
    (do () ((>= i n) )
      (loop for j from (- i 1) downto 0 do
            (setf (aref g i)
                  (vsub (aref g i) (smul (nint (aref mu i j)) (aref g j))))
            (setf gg (gso g mu))
      (if (and (> i 0) (> (norm2 (aref gg (- i 1))) (* 2 (norm2 (aref gg 
            (setf temp (aref g (- i 1)))
            (setf (aref g (- i 1)) (aref g i))
            (setf (aref g i) temp)
            (setf gg (gso g mu))
            (setf i (- i 1))
        (setf i (+ i 1)))

(defun nint (q)
       (car (list (floor (+ q (/ 1 2))))))

(defun test1 ()
  (lll #( #(12 2) #(13 4))))

(defun test2 ()
  (lll #( #(12 2) #(1 2))))

(defun test3 ()
  (lll #( #(1 2) #(12 2) )))

(defun test4 ()
  (lll #( #(1 2) #(9 -4))))

(defun integerRelations (L) ; L ist list of integers
; returns (rel def) such that dotproduct def of rel and L is small
  (let* ((n (length L))
        (z nil) (g nil) (res nil) (optdef 0) (optres nil) (def 0)
        (f (make-array (list (+ n 1)))))
    (setf (aref f 0) (make-array (list (+ n 1)) :initial-element 0))
    (loop for i from 1 to n do
          (setf z  (make-array (list (+ n 1)) :initial-element 0))
          (setf (aref z 0) (nth (- i 1) L))
          (setf (aref z i) 1)
          (setf (aref f i) z))
    (setf g (lll f))
    (setf optdef most-POSITIVE-fixnum)
    (loop for k from 1 to n do
          (setf def 0)
          (setf res nil)
          (loop for i from n downto 1 do
          (setf res (cons (aref (aref g k) i) res))
          (setf def (+ def (* (nth (- i 1) L) (aref (aref g k) i))))
          (if (< (abs def) (abs optdef))
                (setf optdef def)
                (setf optres res)
    (list optres optdef)

(defun test5 ()
  (print "Should give ((3 -7 4) 0)")
  (integerRelations '(5707963267 4142135623 2967764890)))

(defun nkomma (a)
  (- a (car (list (floor a)))))

(defun FloatRelations (x &optional (digits 10)) ; x is a list of floats 
or doubles
  (let ((n (length x)) (digs nil) (i 0) (nkomma 0)
        (nkommaStellen0) (xx 0) (expo nil) (rel nil) (def 0))
    (setf nkommaStellen
          (lambda (x) ; x ist float
            (let ((s 0) (i 0))
              (do () ((< (abs (nkomma (* x (expt 10d0 s)))) (expt 1d-1 
                (setf s (+ s 1)))
  (setf digs (mapcar nkommaStellen x))
  (setf expo (apply 'max digs)) 
  (setf xx (mapcar #'(lambda (u) (car (list (floor (* u (expt 10d0 
expo))))))  x))
  (setf rel (IntegerRelations xx))
  (list (car rel) (/ (cadr rel) (expt 10.0d0 expo)))

(defun test6 ()
  (FloatRelations (list .5707963267d0 .4142135623d0 .2967764890d0)))

(defun mkdif (a b) (list '(MAXIMA::MPLUS) a (list '(MAXIMA::MMINUS) b)) )
(defun mksum (a b) (list '(MAXIMA::MPLUS) a b) )
(defun mkprod (a b) (list '(MAXIMA::MTIMES) a b) )
(defun mkexpt (a b) (list '(MAXIMA::MEXPT) a b))
(defun mkeq (a b) (list '(MAXIMA::MEQUAL) a b))

(defun max2str (expr)
  (maxima::mfuncall 'maxima::$string expr)

(defun convert2AlgNum (x &optional (digits 10)) ; x is float or double
  (let ((n 0) (nn 6) ;; nn: maximal search degree 
        (xs nil) (res nil) (def 0) (sol nil)
        (opt nil) (mini 0)
        (var (gentemp "$v")))
    (loop for n from 2 to nn do
          (if (not (null opt)) (return opt))
          (setf xs (loop for i from 0 to n collect (expt x i)))
          (setf res  (FloatRelations xs digits))
          (setf def (cadr res))
          (if (< (abs def) (expt 10d0 (- digits)))
                (setf pol 0)
                (loop for i from 0 to n do
                      (setf pol (mksum pol (mkprod (nth i (car res)) 
(mkexpt var i)))))
                (setf sol (maxima::meval (maxima::$solve (mkeq pol 0) var)))
                (if (not (null (cdr sol))) ; a solution has been found
                    (progn (setq *sol* sol)
                      (setf sol (mapcar 'third (cdr sol)))
                      (setf sol
                            (mapcar #'(lambda (u)
                                        (let ((r (maxima::$realpart u))
                                              (i (maxima::$float 
(maxima::$imagpart u))))
                                          (if (or (equal i 0) (equal i 
0.0) (equal i 0.0d0))
                                              (list u (abs (- x 
(maxima::$float u))))
                                              (list u 
                      (setf mini most-POSITIVE-DOUBLE-FLOAT)
                      (loop for p in sol do (if (< (second p) mini) 
(setf opt (car p))))
          ); loop
    ) ; let
  ) ;defun

(defun test7 () ; fails
       (convert2AlgNum 1.414213562373d0))

(defun test8 () ; works             
       (convert2AlgNum (+ 2 (* 3 1.414213562373d0))))

(defun test9 () :fails
       (convert2AlgNum (+ 1d0 (sqrt 2d0) (sqrt 3d0)) ))


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